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The pregnancy has a significant impact on the thyroid, although the future mother is a healthy woman and has never had thyroid problems. The reason is that the thyroid gland must increase its production of thyroxine by 50 percent and is forced to work at full speed to cope with the pregnancy.
It is estimated that a pregnant woman's thyroid produces between 30 and 50 percent more thyroxine than under normal conditions. To keep the level of free T4 in the blood stabilized, it has to increase its production rate, since the mother also transfers a portion of her hormones to the fetus, enough to maintain normal development, if the fetus had problems with its thyroid. Here you will find very valuable information about pregnancy and the thyroid gland.
The significant stimulation of the thyroid in pregnant women is due to the influence of a number of specific factors:
1. Chorionic gonadotropin. It is the pregnancy hormone par excellence and is produced in the placenta. It is detected in the mother's blood or urine and is the basis of the pregnancy test. It influences the stimulation of the thyroid, especially during thefirst trimester.Its production begins immediately after conception, at 2 or 3 days and the effects on the pregnant woman's body are very similar to TSH. Chorionic gonadotropin acts as a stimulant for the thyroid. During the first trimester, approximately 18 percent of pregnant women have a slight thyroid stimulation that goes unnoticed among the other discomforts that the pregnant woman feels.
During the first trimester, a slight elevation of T4 and a stagnation of TSH can be registered, which is normal and should not be confused with hyperthyroidism. In the known false hyperthyroidism of the first trimester of pregnancy,there is an increase in thyroid hormones in the blood and an inhibition of TSH, the antithyroid antibodies are normal and, above all, the ultrasound is normal. In the second and third trimesters, chorionic gonadotropin levels decrease and the condition tends to remit.
At true hyperthyroidism, there is an increased vascularization in the thyroid that is seen in the color Doppler echo study. In false hyperthyroidism, thyroid ultrasound is normal.
2. Estrogens. Atsecond and third trimester there are also factors that modify thyroid function. The female hormones themselves, mainly estrogens, could be involved. Thyroid hormones circulate in the blood attached to a protein called TBG (Thyroxin Bindig Globulin or Thyroxine Binding Globulin or Transporter), and in pregnancy the TBG figures skyrocket. Between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation, the TBG level in the blood doubles. Under these circumstances, the T4 and T3 levels in the blood are altered and may give the false impression of a functional alteration, but if the Free T4 is not modified and remains normal, there is no hypothyroidism in pregnancy.
As you can see, pregnancy and the thyroid gland are related. In pregnancy, the mother's thyroid may grow a little. This growth is registered by ultrasound and only occurs in 10-15% of cases. This slight increase in size returns to its original state after delivery.
Marisol New. Guiainfantil.com
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